Skip to main content

Citation Help

This page provides information on the American Journal of Physical Anthropology style

Citation Generators

AJPA style is based in the Author-Year style used by the Council of Biology Editors (CBE) and uses abbreviations for journal titles.  The style is described at right.

RefWorks and Zotero systems can work with AJPA styles.  See below for instructions.

AJPA Style

From the Instructions to Authors:

In the text, references to the literature should be cited by author's surname followed by year of publication. If there are multiple citations, present them chronologically:

. . . analysis by Ward (2001) reveals . . .
. . . studies by Corner and Richtsmeier (2004) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Little et al. (1993) reveal . . .
. . . an earlier report (Hutchinson, 1999) . . .
. . . earlier reports (Arriaza et al., 2000; Paoli et al., 2002; Ross, 2003) . . .

When references are made to more than one paper by the same author published in the same year, they should be designated in the text as (Benefit and McCrossin, 1993a,b) and in the Literature Cited as follows:

Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 1993a. New Kenyapithecus postcrania and other primate fossils from Maboko Island, Kenya [abstract]. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 16:55–56.

Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 1993b. On the lacrimal fossa of Cercopithecinae, with special reference to cladistic analysis of Old World monkey relationships. Folia Primatol 60:133–145.

The literature list must follow CBE style (refer to the CBE Style Manual , 6th edition, Cambridge University Press)* and be arranged alphabetically, not chronologically, by author's or authors' surname(s) in the following style: Author's name (or names), year of publication, complete title, volume, and inclusive pages as follows:

Journal article
Trinkaus E, Churchill SE, Ruff CB. 1994. Postcranial robusticity in Homo . II: humeral bilateral asymmetry and bone plasticity. Am J Phys Anthropol 93:1–34.

Abbreviations of journal titles should follow those used in Index Medicus, available via PubMed at

Bogin B. 2001. The growth of humanity. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Book chapter
Gruner O. 1993. Identification of skulls: A historical review and practical applications. In: Iscan MY, Helmer RP, editors. Forensic analysis of the skull. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 29–45.

Ross AR. 1994. Epidemiology of tuberculosis. In Pathogenesis, Protection and Control , Bloom BR (ed.). ASM Press: Washington, DC; 47-59.