Citation Help

Choose an option in Box 1 and........

ARTICLES
BOOKS
WEBSITES
LIBRARY DATABASES
OTHER

....view examples in Box 2

Books
Articles
Web / Internet Documents
Library Databases
Other

 

Based on Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (2010) Guidelines

Example(s):
 
Choose an option from the left to
view examples here

Books: General Format

Author Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. City, ST: Publisher.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Last Name, Year). Quotation: (Last Name, Year, p. Page Number).

Books: One author

Waller, B. N. (2010). Consider ethics: Theory, readings, and contemporary issues (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Waller, 2010). Quotation: (Waller, 2010, p. 74-75).

Books: Two authors

Thorne, B. M., & Henley, T. B. (2005). Connections in the history and systems of psychology (3rd ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Quotation: (Thorne & Henley, 2005, p. 24).

Books: Three to seven authors

Wittenberg-Lyles, E., Goldsmith, J., Ferrell, B. & Ragan, S. L. (2013). Communication in palliative nursing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Wittenberg-Lyles, Goldsmith, Ferrell, & Ragan, 2013) in first citation of the paper. (Wittenberg-Lyles et al., 2013) in subsequent citations.
Quotation: (Wittenberg-Lyles, Goldsmith, Ferrell, & Ragan, 2013, p. 8). in first citation; (Wittenberg-Lyles et al., 2013, p. 8) in subsequent citations.

Books: Eight authors or more

Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., … Johnson, K. (2014). Applied psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Roeder et al., 2014) Quotation: (Roeder et al., 2014, p. 24-25).

Books: No author. Show as a Title entry

Fodor's Amsterdam & the Netherlands. (2011). New York, NY: Fodor’s Travel Publications.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Fodor’s Amsterdam, 2011). Quotation: (Fodor’s Amsterdam, 2011, p. 23-24).

Books: Organization as author

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Quotation: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 144).

Books: Editor considered Author

Quandt, T. & Kroger, S. (Eds.). (2014). Multiplayer: The social aspects of digital gaming. New York, NY: Routledge.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Quandt & Kroger, 2014). Quotation: (Quandt & Kroger, 2014, p. 58).

Books: Author and Translator

Allende, I. (2013). Maya’s notebook: a novel. (A. McLean, Trans.). New York, NY: Harper.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Allende, 2013). Quotation: (Allende, 2013, p. 34).

Books: Edition

DelPo, A., & Guerin, L. (2013). Dealing with problem employees: A legal guide (7th ed.). Berkeley, CA: Nolo.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (DelPo & Guerin, 2013). Quotation: (DelPo & Guerin, 2013, p. 10-11).

Book from a set (several volumes)

Riggs, T. (Ed.). (2013). Contemporary theatre, film and television (Vol. 123). Detroit, MI: Gale.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Riggs, 2013). Quotation: (Riggs, 2013, p. 166).

Books: Chapter or essay in a collection

Rachels, J. (2010). God and human attitudes. In B. N. Waller, Consider ethics: Theory, readings, and contemporary issues (3rd ed., pp. 11-15). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Rachels, 2010). Quotation: (Rachels, 2010, p. 13).

 

The publication date should be copyright year of the book the essay was found in

Dictionaries / Definitions

Internet:

Speculate. (2014). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/speculate

In-text: (“Speculate”, 2014).


Print:

Speculate. (1999). In M. Agnes (Ed.)., Webster’s new world college dictionary (4th ed., p. 1377). New York, NY: Macmillan.

In-text: (“Speculate”, 1999).

Encyclopedias

With author

White, N. A. (2012). Juvenile and Youth Offenders. In S. M. Barton-Bellessa (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Community Corrections (pp. 221-225). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (White, 2012). Quotation: (White, 2012, p. 222).


No author

Compensation. (2012). In S. D. Hill (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Management (7th ed., pp. 127-135). Detroit, MI: Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (“Compensation”, 2012). Quotation: (“Compensation”, 2012, p. 134).


Internet: with author, no date

Smuts, A. (n.d.). Humor. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (Eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/humor/

In-text
Paraphrase: (Smuts, n.d.). Quotation: (Smuts, n.d., Relief Theory section, para. 3).

Books: Government publication

U. S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography. (1986). Attorney General's Commission on Pornography: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (U. S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, 1986). Quotation: (U. S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, 1986, p. 10-11).

E-books

E-book from Library

Loguidice, B. & Barton, M. (2014). Vintage game consoles: An inside look at Apple, Atari, Commodore, Nintendo, and the greatest gaming platforms of all time. Retrieved from EBL database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Loguidice & Barton, 2014). Quotation: (Loguidice & Barton, 2014, p. 34).


E-Book from the web

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Retrieved from Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6818

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Seton, 1911). Quotation: (Seton, 1911, p. 38-39).


Downloaded e-book

Yin, R. K. (2008). Case study research design and methods: Applied social research methods (4th ed., Vol. 5) [Kindle version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Yin, 2008). Quotation: (Yin, 2008, Location No. 257).

Website: General Format

Author Last Name, Author First & Middle Initials. (Date). Title of webpage. Retrieved from http://webaddressofwebsite

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Author Last Name, Year).
Quotation: (Author Last Name, Year, Section Title, para. Paragraph Number).

Web document: with author; with date

Reiter, P. (2007, November). Human ecology and human behavior: Climate change and health in perspective. Retrieved from http://www.csccc.info/reports/report_22.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Reiter, 2007). Quotation: (Reiter, 2007, para. 3).

Web document: organization as author

With date

World Health Organization. (2013, August). The world health report 2013: research for universal health coverage. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whr/2013/report/en/

In-text:
Paraphrase: (World Health Organization, 2013).
Quotation: (World Health Organization, 2013, para. 8).


No date

United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.). An overview of the federal sentencing guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/about/overview/Overview_Federal_Sentencing_Guidelines.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (United States Sentencing Commission, n.d.).
Quotation: (United States Sentencing Commission, n.d., Conclusion section, para. 12).

Web document: no author; no date

Internet crime prevention tips. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.ic3.gov/preventiontips.aspx

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Internet crime prevention tips," n.d.).
Quotation: ("Internet crime prevention tips," n.d., Credit Card Fraud section).

Web document: Chapter or a section

McKenzie, W. (2008). Naturalist. In Multiple intelligences in education: Intelligence profiles. Retrieved from http://surfaquarium.com/MI/profiles/naturalist.htm

In-text:
Paraphrase: (McKenzie, 2008). Quotation: (McKenzie, 2008, p. 67).

Web document: no author, with date (e.g. news website):

More tests needed before Ohio city gets water back. (2014, August 4). Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/08/03/toledo-tells-residents-not-to-drink-water-due-to-presence-toxins/

In-text:
Paraphrase: (“More tests needed”, 2014). Quotation: (“More tests needed”, 2014, para. 3).

Web document: Academic website

Henderson, J. (2011). ICYouSee: A guide to critical thinking about what you see on the web. Retrieved from Ithaca College Library website: http://www.ithaca.edu/library/training/think.html

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Henderson, 2011). Quotation: (Henderson, 2011, Exercise: Peak Oil).

Web document: Government report

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2013). Health, United States, 2013 (DHHS Publication No. 2014-1232). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus13.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2013).
Quotation: (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2013, p. 10).

 

Company Report: from company / organization website:

NIKE, Inc. (2013). Annual report on form 10-K. Retrieved from NIKE, Inc. website: http://investors.nikeinc.com/files/doc_financials/AnnualReports/2013/docs/nike-2013-form-10K.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (NIKE, 2013). Quotation: (NIKE, 2013, p. 50).

Web document: Technical or research report

University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/files/publications/other/ChronicCareinAmerica.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: First instance (University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging [UCSF/IHA], 1996). Subsequent instances: (UCSF/IHA, 1996). Data/Image: (UCSF/IHA, 1996, p. 39).

Article: General Format

Author Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Source, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. Retrieved from Name of Database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Author Last Name, Year).
Quotation: (Author Last Name, Year, p. Page Number).

Article: No author

Manna for Motown; Detroit's bankruptcy. (2013, October 5). The Economist, 409, 32(US). Retrieved from Newsstand database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (“Manna for Motown”, 2013). Quotation: (“Manna for Motown”, 2013, p. 32).

Article: One author

Murphy, L. (2011). Childhood and adolescent violent victimization and the risk of young adult intimate partner violence victimization. Violence & Victims, 26(5), 593-607. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Select database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Murphy, 2011). Quotation: (Murphy, 2011, p. 599).

Article: Two authors

Scheider, S. & Nordheim, G. (2014). Individual service plans: Assisted living’s key to quality care. Long-Term Living, 63(5), 26, 28. Retrieved from Nursing and Allied Health Source database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Scheider & Nordheim, 2014). Quotation: (Scheider & Nordheim, 2014, p. 26).

Article: Three to seven authors

Peterson, S. A., Aye, T., & Wheeler, P. Y. (2014). Internet use and romantic relationships among college students. North American Journal of Psychology, 16(1), 53. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Peterson, Aye, & Wheeler, 2014) in first citation of paper. (Peterson et al., 2014) in subsequent citations.
Quotation: (Peterson, Aye, & Wheeler, 2014, p. 53) in first citation of paper. (Peterson et al., 2014, p. 53) in subsequent citations.

Article: Eight or more authors

Amsellem, P. M., Selmic, L. E., Wypij, J. M., Bacon, N. J., Culp, W. T. N., Ehrhart, N. P., … Farese, J. P. (2014, July 15). Appendicular osteosarcoma in small-breed dogs: 51 cases (1986-2011). JAVMA: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 245(2), 203-210.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Amsellem et al., 2014). Quotation: (Amsellem et al., 2014, p. 208).

Article: Scholarly/Peer-reviewed Journal

Database:

Adusei, M., & Frimpong, J. M. (2014). Predictors of financial development in Ghana. Journal of Applied Finance and Banking, 4(2), 59-71. Retrieved from ProQuest Business Collection database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Adusei & Frimpong, 2014). Quotation: (Adusei & Frimpong, 2014, p. 67).


Internet:

Flores, D., Hickenlooper, G., & Saxton, R. (2013, September 30). An academic practice partnership: Helping new registered nurses to advance quality and patient safety. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18 (3). Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-18-2013/No3-Sept-2013/Academic-Practice-Partnership.html

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Flores, Hickenlooper, & Saxton, 2013).
Quotation: (Flores, Hickenlooper, & Saxton, 2013, para. 5).

Article: Magazine

Database:

Clear as mud; Health insurance. (2014, July 26). The Economist, 412, 26(US). Retrieved from General OneFile database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Clear as mud", 2014). Quotation: ("Clear as mud", 2014, p. 26).


Internet:

Connelly, E. (2012, July 13). What does organic food mean? Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?What-¬Does-¬Organic-¬Food-¬Mean?&id=7176117

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Connelly, 2012). Quotation: (Connelly, 2012, para. 5).

Article: Newspaper

Database, with author

Fisher, P. (2014, July 25). Ancient history shows us just how bad and volatile climate change could get. Washington Post. Retrieved from Newsstand database

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Fisher, 2014). Quotation (Fisher, 2014, para. 15).


Internet, no author

Executive pay could add tension to talks: Base salaries rise as cuts sought. (2008, March 25). Detroit Free Press. Retrieved from http://www.freep.com/

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Executive Pay," 2008). Quotation: ("Executive Pay," 2008, para. 5).

Print version

with author

Honan, M. (2014, August). House broken. Wired, 22(8), 58.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Honan, 2014). Quotation: (Honan, 2014, p. 58).


no author

IRS reinstates practitioners. (2014, July). Accounting Today, 28(7), 13.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("IRS reinstates practitioners," 2014).
Quotation: ("IRS reinstates practitioners," 2014, p. 13).

Editorial

The phony ‘narrow network’ scare [Editorial]. (2014, July 25). The New York Times, p. A26. Retrieved from New York Times database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("The phony 'narrow network'," 2014).
Quotation: ("The phony 'narrow network'," 2014, p. A26).

Web document: Company Report - from organization website

NIKE, Inc. (n.d.). Corporate Responsibility Report: FY 07 08 09. Retrieved from NIKE, Inc. website: http://www.nikebiz.com/crreport/content/pdf/documents/en-US/full-report.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (NIKE, n.d.). Quotation: (NIKE, n.d., Business Overview Section, pp. 8-9).

Print version

Home Depot. (2001). Home Depot 2000 annual report. Atlanta, GA: Author.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Home Depot, 2001). Quotation: (Home Depot, 2001, p. 34).

Blogs/Wikis: may not be accepted as a scholarly source

Shoemaker, S. (2006, June 8). In praise of Netflix [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://lagunalacuna.blogspot.com/search?q=in+praise+of+netflix.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Shoemaker, 2006). Quotation: (Shoemaker, 2006, para. 4).

Brochure/pamphlet

Print:

American Institute for Cancer Research. (2010). Start where you are [Brochure]. Washington, DC: Author.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (American Institute for Cancer Research, 2000).
Quotation: (American Institute for Cancer Research, 2000, p. 4).


Internet:

Centers for Disease Control. (n.d.) Antibiotics aren't always the answer [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/campaign-materials/print-materials/brochure-answer.pdf

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Centers for Disease Control, n.d.).
Quotation: (Centers for Disease Control, n.d., p. 2).

Class/Course Documents

Course Document

Baker College. (2008, Summer). Developing a time management plan [Course document]. Available from Baker College COL 112 Blackboard website: https://ol.baker.edu/

In-text
Paraphrase: (Baker College, 2008). Quotation: (Baker College, 2008, para. 3).


Discussion Board Posts

Smith, A. B. (2008, March 22). Time management strategies [Discussion board message]. Retrieved from COL 112 Seminar Three Discussion Board at Baker College Blackboard website: https://ol.baker.edu/

In-text
Paraphrase: (Smith, 2008). Quotation: (Smith, 2008, para. 2).


Class handout

Baker College. (2003, Summer). ENG 101 Composition I [Class handout]. Flint, MI: Author.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Baker College, 2003); Quotation: (Baker College, 2003, p. 4).


Lectures

Barron, G. (2005, March 23). Women in Ancient Egypt [Lecture]. Presented to SOC 301 class at Baker College of Flint.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Barron, 2005); Quotation: (Barron, 2005)


Presentations

Johnson, J. J. (2006, March 4). Abnormal behaviors [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at a PSY 235 lecture at Baker College of Flint.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Johnson, 2006). Quotation: (Johnson, 2006, slide 14).

Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Library Database: with author

Maryanski, A., & Turner, J. (2001). Functionalism and structuralism. In E. F. Borgatta & R. J. V. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sociology (2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 1029-1037). New York, NY: MacMillan Reference USA. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Maryanski & Turner, 2001). Quotation: (Maryanski & Turner, 2001, p. 1030).

Library Database: no author

SIC 3721 aircraft. (2005). In L. Pearce (Ed.), Encyclopedia of American industries, Vol. 1: Manufacturing industries. (4th ed., p. 1154-1164). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("SIC", 2001). Quotation: ("SIC", 2001, p. 1156-1157).

Library Database: no author, no date

Plate tectonics. (n.d.). In  Encyclopedia. Retrieved from Issues & Controversies database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Plate Tectonics", n.d.). Quotation: ("Plate Tectonics", n.d., p. 678).

Web - no author

Global warming. (2008). In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/global_warming.aspx

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Global Warming" 2008). Quotation: ("Global Warming", 2008, para. 5).

Definition - Electronic: no author: Title entry

Methane. (1990). In Encyclopedia Americana (International ed., Vol. 18, pp. 321-322). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Methane", 1990). Quotation: ("Methane", 1990, p. 322).

Definition - Electronic: no author, no date

Intranet. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Intranet", n.d.). Quotation: ("Intranet", n.d.).

Library - Print: with author, with date

Hensel, J. W. (1999). Technical education. In Encyclopedia Americana (International ed., Vol.26, p. 354-355). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Hensel, 1999). Quotation: (Hensel, 1999, p. 355).

Quotations

Wilson, W. (1919). In Respectfully quoted: A dictionary of quotations (Number 871). Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/73/871.html

In-text: (Wilson, 1919).

Sound recording

Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Cassette recording]. Perth, Australia: Media Services, Murdoch University.

In-text:
Paraphrase:(Bolton, 1975). Quotation:(Bolton, 1975, <track title>).

Speech

Speech from a website:

King, M. L. Jr. (1963). "I have a dream...". Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/press/exhibits/dream-speech.pdf

In-text: Paraphrase: (King, 1963). Quotation: (King, 1963, para. 4).


Speech from a library database:

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). "I have a dream" address. Retrieved from American History Online (Facts on File) database.

In-text: Paraphrase: (King, 1963). Quotation: (King, 1963, para. 5)


Speech from an e-book:

Franklin D. Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor Speech. (2004). In C. Rose (Ed.), American Decades Primary Sources (Vol. 5, pp. 213-215). Detroit, MI: Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library.

In-text: Paraphrase: ("Franklin D. Roosevelt's", 2004). Quotation: ("Franklin D. Roosevelt's", 2004, p. 213).


Speech from a print book:

Hillstrom, L. C. (2009). The attack on Pearl Harbor. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics.

In-text: President Roosevelt's speech to declare war on Japan began, "Yesterday, December 7, 1941- a date which will live in infamy- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked" (as cited in Hillstrom, 2009, p. 189).


Speech heard in person:

Clinton, H. R. (2014, October 16). Rally for Michigan Democrats. Speech presented at Oakland University, Rochester, MI.

In-text: (Clinton, 2014).


Speech seen on television:

Obama, B. (2014, November 20). Speech on immigration reform [Television Broadcast]. Detroit, MI: ABC News.

In-text: (Obama, 2014).

Media: Film, Motion Picture, TV

Film / Motion Picture

Richter, J. (Producer), & Hausmann, J. (Director). (1985). Cezanne: The man and the mountain [Motion picture]. United States: Home Vision.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Richter & Hausmann, 1985). Quotation: (Richter & Hausmann, 1985, <DVD track title>)


Television: Single Program

Safer, M. (Narr.). (1993, September 19). Yes...But is it art? [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Safer, 1993). Quotation: (Safer, 1993, <chapter/section title>)


Television: Episode from a series

Woodard, K. (Writer). (2005). Katrina's animal rescue [Television series episode]. In B. Murphy (Producer), Nature. New York, NY: Thirteen/WNET New York.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Woodward, 2005). Quotation: (Woodward, 2005,<episode/section title> ).

Podcasts - audio and video

Audio Podcast

Duchon, R. (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. [Podcast]. Retrieved from http://pod.michiganradio.org/podcasts/ashes1.mp3

In-text
Paraphrase:(Duchon, 2007). Quotation:(Duchon, 2007, <chapter/section title>.)


Video Podcast

ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video podcast]. In Good morning America: Person of the week. . Podcast retrieved from ABC: http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PersonOfWeek /Story?id=3633945&page=1

In-text
Paraphrase: (ABC News, 2007). Quotation: (ABC News, 2007, <chapter/section title>).


Navasky, M. & O'Connor, K. (Producers). (2006, November 21). Living old. (W. Lyman, Narrator) [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/livingold/

In-text
Paraphrase: (Navasky & O'Connor, 2006). Quotation: (Navasky & O'Connor, 2006, <chapter/section title>).

Tweet (may not be accepted as a scholarly source)

Twitter handle. (Year, Month Day). Enter the tweet message here [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com

In-text: (Twitter handle, Year)

YouTube

Personal author

Goyen, A. (Producer). (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW3CNCGGgTY

In-text
Paraphrase:(Goyen, 2007). Quotation:(Goyen, 2007, <section title>).


Organization as author

University of Chicago. (Producer). (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xax5d4IKqrQ

In-text
Paraphrase: (University of Chicago, 2007). Quotation:(University of Chicago, 2007).

Photos/Images

Images: with title, with Photographer name and date

Strang, J. [Photographer]. (2006). Aurora Borealis - Bear Lake, Alaska [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polarlicht_2.jpg


Images: with title, no photographer name or date

Spices for the curry [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://jdtr.pagesperso-orange.fr/marsau3.htm


Images: no title, photographer name or date

[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jdtr/struc/chimp3.htm

Online Discussion forums (may not considered authoritative sources)

Simmons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources for visual recognition [Msg 31]. Message posted to http://group.yahoo.com/group/visualrecognition/message31

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Simmons, 2000). Quotation: (Simmons, 2000, para. 4).

Reports

Annual/Corporate/Company report

Technical or research report

University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/files/publications/other/ChronicCareinAmerica.pdf

In-text
Paraphrase: First instance (University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging [UCSF/IHA], 1996). Subsequent instances: (UCSF/IHA, 1996). Quotation: (UCSF/IHA, 1996, para. 2).

Government report

U.S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the surgeon general's conference on children's mental health: A national section agenda. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/chilreport.htm

In-text
Paraphrase: (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Quotation: (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000, para. 7).

Doctoral Dissertations / Master's Theses

Published, retrieved from a library database

Roi, R. C. (2006).  Leadership, corporate culture and financial performance (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete. (UMI No. AAT 3223891)

In-text
Paraphrase: (Roi, 2006). Quotation: (Roi, 2006, p. 89).


Published, obtained from PQDT (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses) Open

Pandit, G. (2011). Critical reflection in collective knowledge creation: A mixed-method case study of middle managers' reflection and interaction in a public organization (Doctoral dissertation). (UMI No. AAT 3426943). Retrieved from http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=3426943

In-text
Paraphrase: (Pandit, 2011). Quotation: (Pandit, 2011, p. 89).


Unpublished, obtained from a university

Myers, K. H. (2004). Juvenile recidivism: An investigation into the reduction of future law violations of incarcerated youth in Louisiana (Unpublished master's thesis). McNeese State University, Lake Charles, LA. 

In-text
Paraphrase: (Myers, 2004). Quotation: (Myers, 2004, p. 28-29).

Personal Communication

Show only in-text. Format:
Last name, First & Middle initials (personal communication, Month Date, year).

DO NOT INCLUDE IN REFERENCES.

Articles obtained via Interlibrary Loan

Cite as articles from a print source.

Keynote Address

Stein, B. (2003, May 23). America's ballroom challenge (Keynote address) Computers and Writing Conference. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Stein, 2003). Quotation: (Stein, 2003, para. 6).

Conference Paper

Bancroft, D. & Lowe, S. (2006). Helping users help themselves: Evaluating the off-campus library services website. In J. Garrison (Ed.), Twelfth Off-campus Library Services Conference Proceedings (pp. 11-23). Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Bancroft & Lowe, 2006). Quotation: (Bancroft & Lowe, 2006, p. 15).

Government Document

United States Government Accountability Office. (2009). Litigation has decreased and EPA needs betteriInformation on site cleanup and cost issues to estimate future program funding requirements [GAO-09-656]. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09656.pdf

In-text
Paraphrase: First instance (United States Government Accountability Office, 2009). Further instances (U. S. GAO, 2009).
Quotation: First instance (United States Government Accountability Office, 2009, p. 45). Further instances (U. S. GAO, 2009, p. 49).

Interviews

Recorded & archived at a website

PBS & WGBH (Boston). (2009, February 9). America's Ballroom Challenge: Interview with the show's creator: Aida Moreno. Available at the PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ballroomchallenge/interview.html


Personal: not archived

Show only in-text. Format:
Last name, First & Middle Initials (personal communication, Month Date, year).

DO NOT INCLUDE IN REFERENCES.

Law / Legal Documents

Michigan law (Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated)

Parts of citation:

Title of the act. MCLA abbreviated title. Section number. (Publisher year).

Example:

Safe Drinking Water Act. Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. 325.1007 (West 1999).


Michigan Supreme Court case

Parts of citation:

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Reports abbreviated title First page of case (year case decided).

Example:

People v. Davis, 472 Mich. 156 (2005).


Michigan Court of Appeals case

Parts of citation:

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Appeals Reports abbreviation First page of case (year case decided).

Example:

Tuggle v. Department of State Police, 269 Mich App 657 (2005).


Federal law (original version, as passed)

Parts of citation:

Title of the law. Public law number. Date enacted. Statutes at Large cataloging number.

Example:

Fair Credit and Charge Card Disclosure Act of 1988. Pub. L. 100-583. 3 Nov. 1988. Stat. 102.2960.


Federal Court case

Parts of citation:

Title of case. Number of the case. Name of court that decided the case. Date of decision.

Example:

United States Department of Defense v. Federal Labor Relations Authority. No 92-1223. Supreme Ct. of the US. 23 February 1994.


Adapted with permission from Lansing Community College's APA Print and Media Sources page.

Working Paper / In press

Guéguen, N. (In Press, Uncorrected Proof). Dead indoor plants strengthen belief in global warming. [Abstract]. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Retrieved from ScienceDirect database.

In-text: (Guéguen, in press).

Electronic mailing lists / Listserv

Campbell, D. (2010, April 1). Re: Evaluating resources [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://lists.ala.org/wws/arc/ili-l

In-text: (Campbell, 2010).


Private E-mail messages should be cited as personal communications and will not appear on your reference page. Cite in-text as follows:

Campbell, D. (personal communication, April 1, 2010)

Library documents

Handouts

Baker College. (2010). Academic integrity [Library handout]. Retrieved from http://libguides.baker.edu/academicintegrity

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Baker College, 2008). Quotation: (Baker College, 2008, p. 2).

The examples below work for most article databases.
For additional examples, look in the Articles menu.

Newspaper:

Power, S. (2008, March 17). EPA says carbon caps won't harm economy much. Wall Street Journal, p. A.2. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Power, 2008). Quotation: (Power, 2008, para. 5).

 


Magazine:

Marino, S. (1999, June 7). The difference between managing and leading. Industry Week, 248(11), 10. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Marino, 1999). Quotation: (Marino, 1999, p. 10).


Journal:

Hunsaker, P. L. (2004). Learning to manage intergroup dynamics in changing task environments: An experiential exercise. Journal of Management Education, 28(6), 790-805. Retrieved from ProQuest Business Collection database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Hunsaker, 2004). Quotation: (Hunsaker, 2004, p. 799).

Business Insights: Global (Gale)

Article:

Freeman, S., Hutchings, K. & Chetty, S. (2012, May). Born-globals and culturally proximate markets. Management International Review, 52(3), 425-460. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Freeman, Hutchings, & Chetty, 2012).
Quotation: (Freeman, Hutchings, & Chetty, 2012, para. 7).


Company History:

Starbucks Corporation. (2014). In S. Long, D. Jacques, & P. Kepos (Eds.), International Directory of Company Histories (Vol. 159). Farmington Hills, MI: St. James Press. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Starbucks Corporation", 2014).
Quotation: ("Starbucks Corporation", 2014, para. 5).

Campus Research (Westlaw)

Roe v. Wade, 404 U.S. 981, 92 S.Ct. 442 (Mem. No. 70-18). (U.S. December 7, 1971). Retrieved from Campus Research (Westlaw) database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Roe v. Wade, 1971). Quotation: (Roe v. Wade, 1971, para. 12).

Checkpoint (RIA)

Federal tax alert: Listing of tax breaks that weren't extended. (2010, December 30). Tax Alerts Developments (RIA). Retrieved from Checkpoint (RIA) database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Federal Tax Alert", 2010). Quotation: ("Federal Tax Alert", 2010, Section: Qualified motor vehicle taxes).

Chronicle of Higher Education

McCabe, D. L. & Drinan, P. (1999, October 15). Toward a culture of academic integrity. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com

In-text:
Paraphrase: (McCabe & Drinan, 1999). Quotation: (McCabe & Drinan, 1999, para. 3).

CINAHL Complete (EBSCO)

Leow, Q., Drury, V., & Poon, W. (2010). A qualitative exploration of patients' experiences of music therapy in an inpatient hospice in Singapore. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(7), 344-350. Retrieved from CINAHL Complete database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Leow, Drury, & Poon, 2010). Quotation: (Leow, Drury, & Poon, 2010, p. 346).

CQ Researcher

Mantel, B. (2014, January 24). Minimum wage. CQ Researcher, 24 (4), 73-96. Retrieved from CQ Researcher database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Mantel, 2014). Quotation: (Mantel, 2014, p. 89).

ERIC

Glass, G. V. & Welner, K. G. (2011). Online K-12 schooling in the U.S.: Uncertain private ventures in need of public regulation. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from ERIC website: http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED526345.pdf

In-text
Paraphrase: (Glass & Welner, 2011). Quotation: (Glass & Welner, 2011, p. 16).

Facts and Comparisons eAnswers

Donepezil Hydrochloride. (2014, April). In Facts and Comparisons eAnswers. Retrieved from Facts and Comparisons eAnswers database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Donepezil Hydrochloride", 2014).
Quotation ("Donepezil Hydrochloride", 2014, Indications section).

Films on Demand

Whole movie:

Cambridge Educational. (2006). Information literacy: The perils of online research [Online video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Cambridge Educational, 2006).
Quotation (use time stamp): (Cambridge Educational, 2006, 13:22).


Segment:

BBC. (2013). The divergent thinking test [segment 12]. In The creative brain: How insight works [Online video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (BBC, 2013). Quotation: (BBC, 2006, 21:23).

Gale Virtual Reference Library

With author

White, N. A. (2012). Juvenile and Youth Offenders. In S. M. Barton-Bellessa (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Community Corrections (pp. 221-225). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (White, 2012). Quotation: (White, 2012, p. 222).


No author

Compensation. (2012). In S. D. Hill (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Management (7th ed., pp. 127-135). Detroit, MI: Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (“Compensation”, 2012). Quotation: (“Compensation”, 2012, p. 134).

IBISWorld

Industry Report:

Turk, S. (2014, July). IBISWorld Industry Report 31192a: Coffee production in the US [pdf]. Retrieved from IBIS World Industry Market Research database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Turk, 2014). Quotation: (Turk, 2014, p. 6).


Article:

IBISWorld. (2012, June). Consumer sentiment index in the US - Business Environment Report. In Business Environment. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (IBISWorld, 2012). Quotation: (IBISWorld, 2012, para. 4).

Issues and Controversies

no author; no date

Plate tectonics. (n.d.). In  Encyclopedia. Retrieved from Issues & Controversies database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Plate Tectonics", n.d.). Quotation: ("Plate Tectonics", n.d., p. 678).

no author; with date

Insanity defense. (2009, February 17). In Issues and Controversies on File. Retrieved from Issues & Controversies database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Insanity Defense", 2009). Quotation: ("Insanity Defense", 2009., para. 7).

InfoTrac Newsstand(no author)

Strenuous exercise won't hurt your sleep. (2003, June 8). Washington Times, p. C11. Retrieved from InfoTrac Newsstand database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: ("Strenuous Exercise", 2003). Quotation: ("Strenuous Exercise", 2003, para. 2).

LexisNexis

Legal:

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973). Retrieved from LexisNexis database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Roe v. Wade, 1973). Quotation: (Roe v. Wade, 1973, para. 3).


Company:

Zacks Investment Research. (2014, July 28). Starbucks Corp. [Analyst Report]. Retrieved from LexisNexis database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Zacks Investment Research, 2014).
Quotation: (Zacks Investment Research, 2014, p. 7).

Mergent Online

Dunkin' Brands Group, Inc. (2014). Annual income statement. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

In-text: (Dunkin' Brands Group, Inc., 2014).

MyiLibrary

Dul, J. & Hak, T. (2008). Case Study Methodology in Business Research. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier. Retrieved from My iLibrary database

In-text
Paraphrase: (Dul & Hak, 2008). Quotation: (Dul & Hak, 2008, p. 56).

eBooks on EBSCOhost

Zeinert, K. (1998). Those courageous women of the Civil War. Brookefield, CT: Millbrook Press. Retrieved from eBooks on EBSCOhost.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Zeinert, 1998). Quotation: (Zeinert, 1998, p. 34).

Newswire service

Strong voter support for California Medical Privacy Law. (2012, July 2). PR Newswire. Retrieved from InfoTrac Newsstand database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Strong Voter", 2012). Quotation: ("Strong Voter", 2012, para. 7).

OmniFile Full Text Select

McKnight-Tutein, G., & Thackaberry, A. (2011).  Having it all. Distance Learning, 8(3), 17-22. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Select database.

In-text:
Paraphrase: (McKnight-Tutein & Thackaberry, 2011). Quotation: (McKnight-Tutein & Thackaberry, 2011, p. 19).

Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Viewpoint Essay

Diller, V. (2013). Altered fashion magazine photographs contribute to unrealistic body images. In L. I. Gerdes (Ed.), Opposing Viewpoints. The Culture of Beauty. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Diller, 2013). Quotation: (Diller, 2013, para. 5).


Magazine Article

Jones, A. (2014, April 4). Alzheimer's is expensive, deadly and growing. So where's the research money? Newsweek, 162(13), 1. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Jones, 2014). Quotation: (Jones, 2014, p. 1).

Research Starters located in the Baker Library Search

Tarjan, S. (2013, January). Bariatric surgery. Magill's Medical Guide (Online Edition). Retrieved from Research Starters database.

It is also acceptable to list the source as the Retrieved from: Baker Library Search.

 

In-text:
Paraphrase: (Tarjan, 2013). Quotation: (Tarjan, 2011, para. 7).

Salem Press Resources

Sexson, L. (2004). The Bhagavad Gita is created. In M. W. Chavalas (Ed.), Great Events from History: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476 c.e. (2 vols). Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. Retrieved from Salem History database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Sexson, 2004). Quotation: (Sexson, 2004, para. 3).

ScienceDirect

Reiss, M. J. (2002). Ethical dimensions of therapeutic human cloning. Journal of Biotechnology, 98(1), 61-70. Retrieved from ScienceDirect database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Reiss, 2002). Quotation: (Reiss, 2002, p. 2).

Science in Context (Gale)

Experiments

Insects. (2008). In Experiment Central. U*X*L. Retrieved from Science in Context database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Insects, 2008). Quotation: ("Insects", 2008, para. 8).

Stat!Ref

Edge, S. B. (Ed.) (2010). Chapter 3: Lip and Oral Cavity. In AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook (7th ed). Retrieved from STAT!Ref Online Electronic Medical Library database.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Edge, 2010). Quotation: (Edge, 2010, para. 7).

Today’s Science

Fire and ice: Global warming and Antarctica. (2008, March). Today's Science. Retrieved from Today's Science database.

In-text
Paraphrase: ("Fire and Ice", 2008). Quotation: ("Fire and Ice", 2008, para. 2).

Wall Street Journal

Power, S. (2008, March 17). EPA says carbon caps won't harm economy much. Wall Street Journal, p. A.2. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal.

In-text
Paraphrase: (Power, 2008). Quotation: (Power, 2008, para. 5).

Using DOI in Reference

Naidu, C. V., Sathyanarayana, G. C., Durgalakshmi, K., Malleswara Rao, L., & Nagaratna, K. (2010). Is winter monsoon rainfall over South Peninsular India increasing in global warming era?Global and Planetary Change, 72(1-2), 69-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.04.002

In-text
Paraphrase: (Naidu, Sathyanarayana, Durgalakshmi, Malleswara Rao, & Nagaratna, 2010). Quotation: (Naidu, Sathyanarayana, Durgalakshmi, Malleswara Rao, & Nagaratna, 2010 p. 70).

Credits

Modified from Baker College's APA Guide